References including authors’ evidence level (EL) rankings

Note: The authors’ EL ratings of the references are listed to the right of each reference.

1. Singer PA, Cooper DS, Levy EG, Ladenson PW, Braverman LE, Daniels G, Greenspan FS, McDougall IR, Nikolai TF 1995 Treatment guidelines for patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Standards of Care Committee, American Thyroid Association. JAMA 273:808–812. EL4
2. Baskin HJ, Cobin RH, Duick DS, Gharib H, Guttler RB, Kaplan MM, Segal RL 2002 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract 8:457–469. EL4
3. Garcia M, Baskin HJ, Feld S, Cobin RH, Daniels GH, Davidson ET, Dickey RA, Janick JJ, Jellinger PS, Price WF, Rodbard HW 1995 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract 1:54–62. EL4
4. Torres MS, Emerson CH 2011 Myxedema coma. In: Irwin RS, Rippe JM (eds) Irwin & Rippe’s Intensive Care Medicine, 7th edition. Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippencott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp 1055–1058. EL4
5. Mechanick JI, Camacho PM, Cobin RH, Garber AJ, Garber JR, Gharib H, Petak SM, Rodbard HW, Trence DL 2010 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines—2010 update. Endocr Pract 16:270–283. EL4
6. Johnson N 1998 New approaches to the development and use of treatment guidelines. Formulary. Available at (accessed August 19, 2012). EL4
7. Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, Sugerman HJ, Gonzalez-Campoy JM, Collazo-Clavell ML, Guven S, Spitz AF, Apovian CM, Livingston EH, Brolin R, Sarwer DB, Anderson WA, Dixon J 2008 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient. Endocr Pract 14(Suppl 1): 1–83. EL4
8. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Garber JR, Greenlee MC, Klein I, Laurberg P, McDougall IR, Montori VM, Rivkees SA, Ross DS, Sosa JA, Stan MN 2011 Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid 21:593–646. EL4
9. Bahn RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Garber JR, Greenlee MC, Klein I, Laurberg P, McDougall IR, Montori VM, Rivkees SA, Ross DS, Sosa JA, Stan MN 2011 Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocr Pract 17:456–520. EL4
10. Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, Nixon A, Pearce EN, Soldin OP, Sullivan S, Wiersinga W 2011 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid 21:1081–1125. EL4
11. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE 2002 Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:489–499. EL1
12. Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, Ridgway EC 2000 The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Intern Med 160:526–534. EL1
13. Sawin CT, Castelli WP, Hershman JM, McNamara P, Bacharach P 1985 The aging thyroid. Thyroid deficiency in the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 145:1386–1388. EL1
14. Vanderpump MP, Tunbridge WM, French JM, Appleton D, Bates D, Clark F, Grimley Evans J, Hasan DM, Rodgers H, Tunbridge F, Young ET 1995 The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 43:55–68. EL2
15. Vanderpump MP, Tunbridge WM 2002 Epidemiology and prevention of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid 12:839–847. EL4
16. Andersson M, de Benoist B, Delange F, Zupan J 2007 Prevention and control of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in children less than 2-years-old: conclusions and recommendations of the Technical Consultation. Public Health Nutr 10:1606–1611. EL4
17. Nerup J 1974 Addison’s disease—clinical studies. A report of 108 cases. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 76:127–141. EL3
18. Nerup J 1974 Addison’s disease—serological studies. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 76:142–158. EL3
19. Heward J, Gough SC 1997 Genetic susceptibility to the development of autoimmune disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 93:479–491. EL3
20. Payami H, Joe S, Thomson G 1989 Autoimmune thyroid disease in type I diabetic families. Genet Epidemiol 6:137–141. EL3
21. Torfs CP, King MC, Huey B, Malmgren J, Grumet FC 1986 Genetic interrelationship between insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the autoimmune thyroid diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Hum Genet 38:170–187. EL3
22. Walker DJ, Griffiths M, Griffiths ID 1986 Occurrence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in multicase rheumatoid arthritis families. Ann Rheum Dis 45:323–326. EL3
23. Grennan DM, Dyer PA, Clague R, Dodds W, Smeaton I, Harris R 1983 Family studies in RA—the importance of HLA-DR4 and of genes for autoimmune thyroid disease. J Rheumatol 10:584–589. EL3
24. Dittmar M, Kahaly GJ 2003 Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes: immunogenetics and long-term follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2983–2992. EL2
25. Broadley SA, Deans J, Sawcer SJ, Clayton D, Compston DA 2000 Autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives of patients with multiple sclerosis. A UK survey. Brain 123:1102–1111. EL3
26. Menconi F, Monti MC, Greenberg DA, Oashi T, Osman R, Davies TF, Ban Y, Jacobson EM, Concepcion ES, Li CW, Tomer Y 2008 Molecular amino acid signatures in the MHC class II peptide-binding pocket predispose to autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14034–14039. EL3
27. Ban Y, Greenberg DA, Davies TF, Jacobson E, Concepcion E, Tomer Y 2008 Linkage analysis of thyroid antibody production: evidence for shared susceptibility to clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3589–3596. EL3
28. Huber G, Staub JJ, Meier C, Mitrache C, Guglielmetti M, Huber P, Braverman LE 2002 Prospective study of the spontaneous course of subclinical hypothyroidism: prognostic value of thyrotropin, thyroid reserve, and thyroid antibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3221–3226. EL2
29. Kubota S, Fujiwara M, Hagiwara H, Tsujimoto N, Takata K, Kudo T, Nishihara E, Ito M, Amino N, Miyauchi A 2010 Multiple thyroid cysts may be a cause of hypothyroidism in patients with relatively high iodine intake. Thyroid 20:205–208. EL3
30. Murdoch JC, Ratcliffe WA, McLarty DG, Rodger JC, Ratcliffe JG 1977 Thyroid function in adults with Down’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:453–458. EL3
31. Radetti G, Mazzanti L, Paganini C, Bernasconi S, Russo G, Rigon F, Cacciari E 1995 Frequency, clinical and laboratory features of thyroiditis in girls with Turner’s syndrome. The Italian Study Group for Turner’s Syndrome. Acta Paediatr 84:909–912. EL3
32. Burrow GN, Burke WR, Himmelhoch JM, Spencer RP, Hershman JM 1971 Effect of lithium on thyroid function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32:647–652. EL3
33. Bennie EH, Lazarus JH 1972 Lithium-induced thyroid dysfunction. Lancet 2:44–45. EL4
34. Emerson CH, Dysno WL, Utiger RD 1973 Serum thyrotropin and thyroxine concentrations in patients receiving lithium carbonate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36:338–346. EL2
35. Fentiman IS, Thomas BS, Balkwill FR, Rubens RD, Hayward JL 1985 Primary hypothyroidism associated with interferon therapy of breast cancer. Lancet 1:1166. EL4
36. Preziati D, La Rosa L, Covini G, Marcelli R, Rescalli S, Persani L, Del Ninno E, Meroni PL, Colombo M, Beck-Peccoz P 1995 Autoimmunity and thyroid function in patients with chronic active hepatitis treated with recombinant interferon alpha-2a. Eur J Endocrinol 132:587–593. EL2
37. Martino E, Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, Braverman LE 2001 The effects of amiodarone on the thyroid. Endocr Rev 22:240–254. EL4
38. Clark CD, Bassett B, Burge MR 2003 Effects of kelp supplementation on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects. Endocr Pract 9:363–369. EL3
39. Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Vagenakis AG, Adams L, Maloof F 1971 Enhanced susceptibility to iodide myxedema in patients with Hashimoto’s disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32:515–521. EL3
40. Braverman LE, Vagenakis AG, Wang CA, Maloof F, Ingbar SH 1971 Studies on the pathogenesis of iodide myxedema. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 84:130–138. EL3
41. Morshed SA, Latif R, Davies TF 2009 Characterization of thyrotropin receptor antibody-induced signaling cascades. Endocrinology 150:519–529. EL3
42. Fu J, Jiang Y, Liang L, Zhu H 2005 Risk factors of primary thyroid dysfunction in early infants born to mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease. Acta Paediatr 94:1043–1048. EL2
43. Laurberg P, Nygaard B, Glinoer D, Grussendorf M, Orgiazzi J 1998 Guidelines for TSH-receptor antibody measurements in pregnancy: results of an evidence-based symposium organized by the European Thyroid Association. Eur J Endocrinol 139:584–586. EL4
44. Kappers MH, van Esch JH, Smedts FM, de Krijger RR, Eechoute K, Mathijssen RH, Sleijfer S, Leijten F, Danser AH, van den Meiracker AH, Visser TJ 2011 Sunitinib-induced hypothyroidism is due to induction of type 3 deiodinase activity and thyroidal capillary regression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:3087–3094. EL2
45. Desai J, Yassa L, Marqusee E, George S, Frates MC, Chen MH, Morgan JA, Dychter SS, Larsen PR, Demetri GD, Alexander EK 2006 Hypothyroidism after sunitinib treatment for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Ann Intern Med 145:660–664. EL3
46. Utiger RD 1965 Radioimmunoassay of human plasma thyrotropin. J Clin Invest 44:1277–1286. EL1
47. Beck-Peccoz P, Amr S, Menezes-Ferreira MM, Faglia G, Weintraub BD 1985 Decreased receptor binding of biologically inactive thyrotropin in central hypothyroidism. Effect of treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. N Engl J Med 312:1085–1090. EL2
48. Huang SA, Fish SA, Dorfman DM, Salvatore D, Kozakewich HP, Mandel SJ, Larsen PR 2002 A 21-year-old woman with consumptive hypothyroidism due to a vascular tumor expressing type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4457–4461. EL3
49. Mouat F, Evans HM, Cutfield WS, Hofman PL, Jefferies C 2008 Massive hepatic hemangioendothelioma and consumptive hypothyroidism. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 21:701–703. EL3
50. Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A, Katayama S, Narabayashi I, Ikeda H, Kuma K, Sugawara M 1993 Clinical aspects of primary thyroid lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment based on our experience of 119 cases. Thyroid 3:93–99. EL3
51. Bjorses P, Aaltonen J, Horelli-Kuitunen N, Yaspo ML, Peltonen L 1998 Gene defect behind APECED: a new clue to autoimmunity. Hum Mol Genet 7:1547–1553. EL4
52. Meloni A, Furcas M, Cetani F, Marcocci C, Falorni A, Perniola R, Pura M, Boe Wolff AS, Husebye ES, Lilic D, Ryan KR, Gennery AR, Cant AJ, Abinun M, Spickett GP, Arkwright PD, Denning D, Costigan C, Dominguez M, McConnell V, Willcox N, Meager A 2008 Autoantibodies against type I interferons as an additional diagnostic criterion for autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4389–4397. EL2
53. Huber A, Menconi F, Corathers S, Jacobson EM, Tomer Y 2008 Joint genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis: from epidemiology to mechanisms. Endocr Rev 29:697–725. EL4
54. Stryker TD, Molitch ME 1985 Reversible hyperthyrotropinemia, hyperthyroxinemia, and hyperprolactinemia due to adrenal insufficiency. Am J Med 79:271–276. EL3
55. Abdullatif HD, Ashraf AP 2006 Reversible subclinical hypothyroidism in the presence of adrenal insufficiency. Endocr Pract 12:572. EL3
56. Canaris GJ, Steiner JF, Ridgway EC 1997 Do traditional symptoms of hypothyroidism correlate with biochemical disease? J Gen Intern Med 12:544–550. EL3
57. Birkent H, Karacalioglu O, Merati AL, Akcam T, Gerek M 2008 Prospective study of the impact of thyroid hormone replacement on objective voice parameters. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 117:523–527. EL2
58. Billewicz WZ, Chapman RS, Crooks J, Day ME, Gossage J, Wayne E, Young JA 1969 Statistical methods applied to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Q J Med 38:255–266. EL3
59. Zulewski H, Muller B, Exer P, Miserez AR, Staub JJ 1997 Estimation of tissue hypothyroidism by a new clinical score: evaluation of patients with various grades of hypothyroidism and controls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:771–776. EL3
60. Lambert EH, Underdahl LO, Beckett S, Mederos LO 1951 A study of the ankle jerk in myxedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 11:1186–1205. EL3
61. Bell GM, Todd WT, Forfar JC, Martyn C, Wathen CG, Gow S, Riemersma R, Toft AD 1985 End-organ responses to thyroxine therapy in subclinical hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 22:83–89. EL2
62. Mason RL, Hunt HM, Hurxthal, LM 1930 Blood cholesterol values in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: their significance. N Engl J Med 203:1273–1278. EL3
63. Haines AL, Mussey RD 1935 Certain menstrual disturbances associated with low basal metabolic rates without myxedema. JAMA 105:557–560. EL3
64. Foster RC, Thornton, MJ 1939 Thyroid in the treatment of menstrual irregularities. Endocrinology 24.383–388. EL3
65. Goldsmith RE, Sturgis SH, Lerman J, Stanbury JB 1952 The menstrual pattern in thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 12:846–855. EL3
66. Klein I, Mantell P, Parker M, Levey GS 1980 Resolution of abnormal muscle enzyme studies in hypothyroidism. Am J Med Sci 279:159–162. EL3
67. Tajiri J, Shimada T, Naomi S, Umeda T, Sato T 1984 Hepatic dysfunction in primary hypothyroidism. Endocrinol Jpn 31:83–91. EL3
68. Surks MI, Sievert R 1995 Drugs and thyroid function. N Engl J Med 333:1688–1694. EL4
69. Oppenheimer JH, Squef R, Surks MI, Hauer H 1963 Binding of thyroxine by serum proteins evaluated by equilibrium dialysis and electrophoretic techniques. Alterations in nonthyroidal illness. J Clin Invest 42:1769–1782. EL1
70. Mendel CM 1989 The free hormone hypothesis: a physiologically based mathematical model. Endocr Rev 10:232–274. EL4
71. Stockigt JR 2001 Free thyroid hormone measurement. A critical appraisal. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 30:265–289. EL4
72. Ain KB, Pucino F, Shiver TM, Banks SM 1993 Thyroid hormone levels affected by time of blood sampling in thyroxine-treated patients. Thyroid 3:81–85. EL3
73. Lee RH, Spencer CA, Mestman JH, Miller EA, Petrovic I, Braverman LE, Goodwin TM 2009 Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:260 e261–266. EL2
74. Mandel SJ, Spencer CA, Hollowell JG 2005 Are detection and treatment of thyroid insufficiency in pregnancy feasible? Thyroid 15:44–53. EL4
75. Lum SM, Nicoloff JT, Spencer CA, Kaptein EM 1984 Peripheral tissue mechanism for maintenance of serum triiodothyronine values in a thyroxine-deficient state in man. J Clin Invest 73:570–575. EL3
76. Kaplan MM, Larsen PR, Crantz FR, Dzau VJ, Rossing TH, Haddow JE 1982 Prevalence of abnormal thyroid function test results in patients with acute medical illnesses. Am J Med 72:9–16. EL2
77. Peeters RP, Wouters PJ, Kaptein E, van Toor H, Visser TJ, Van den Berghe G 2003 Reduced activation and increased inactivation of thyroid hormone in tissues of critically ill patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3202–3211. EL3
78. Caron PJ, Nieman LK, Rose SR, Nisula BC 1986 Deficient nocturnal surge of thyrotropin in central hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62:960–964. EL3
79. Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P 2008 Variation in thyroid function tests in patients with stable untreated subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid 18:303–308. EL2
80. Spencer CA, LoPresti JS, Patel A, Guttler RB, Eigen A, Shen D, Gray D, Nicoloff JT 1990 Applications of a new chemiluminometric thyrotropin assay to subnormal measurement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:453–460. EL3
81. Hamilton TE, Davis S, Onstad L, Kopecky KJ 2008 Thyrotropin levels in a population with no clinical, autoantibody, or ultrasonographic evidence of thyroid disease: implications for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:1224–1230. EL1
82. Volzke H, Alte D, Kohlmann T, Ludemann J, Nauck M, John U, Meng W 2005 Reference intervals of serum thyroid function tests in a previously iodine-deficient area. Thyroid 15:279–285. EL2
83. Volzke H, Schmidt CO, John U, Wallaschofski H, Dorr M, Nauck M 2010 Reference levels for serum thyroid function tests of diagnostic and prognostic significance. Horm Metab Res 42:809–814. EL2
84. Boucai L, Hollowell JG, Surks MI 2011 An approach for development of age-, gender-, and ethnicity-specific thyrotropin reference limits. Thyroid 21:5–11. EL1
85. Baloch Z, Carayon P, Conte-Devolx B, Demers LM, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Henry JF, LiVosli VA, Niccoli-Sire P, John R, Ruf J, Smyth PP, Spencer CA, Stockigt JR 2003 Laboratory medicine practice guidelines. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease. Thyroid 13:3–126. EL4
86. Wartofsky L, Dickey RA 2005 The evidence for a narrower thyrotropin reference range is compelling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:5483–5488. EL4
87. Surks MI, Goswami G, Daniels GH 2005 The thyrotropin reference range should remain unchanged. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:5489–5496. EL4
88. Surks MI, Hollowell JG 2007 Age-specific distribution of serum thyrotropin and antithyroid antibodies in the US population: implications for the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:4575–4582. EL1
89. Kaptein EM, Spencer CA, Kamiel MB, Nicoloff JT 1980 Prolonged dopamine administration and thyroid hormone economy in normal and critically ill subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51:387–393. EL2
90. Sowers JR, Carlson HE, Brautbar N, Hershman JM 1977 Effect of dexamethasone on prolactin and TSH responses to TRH and metoclopramide in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:237–241. EL2
91. Wong ET, Bradley SG, Schultz AL 1981 Elevations of thyroid-stimulating hormone during acute nonthyroidal illness. Arch Intern Med 141:873–875. EL3
92. Lightman SL, Fox P, Dunne MJ 1986 The effect of SMS 201–995, a long-acting somatostatin analogue, on anterior pituitary function in healthy male volunteers. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 119:84–95. EL2
93. Sherman SI, Gopal J, Haugen BR, Chiu AC, Whaley K, Nowlakha P, Duvic M 1999 Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. N Engl J Med 340:1075–1079. EL3
94. Lawson EA, Klibanski A 2008 Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4:407–414. EL3
95. Gershengorn MC, Weintraub BD 1975 Thyrotropin-induced hyperthyroidism caused by selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. A new syndrome of “inappropriate secretion of TSH”. J Clin Invest 56:633–642. EL3
96. Halsall DJ, English E, Chatterjee VK 2009 Interference from heterophilic antibodies in TSH assays. Ann Clin Biochem 46:345–346. EL4
97. Boothby WM, Sandiford I 1929 Normal values of basal or standard metabolism. A modification of the Dubois standards. Am J Physiol 90:290–291. EL3
98. Werner SC 1955 Basal metabolism. In: Werner SC (ed) The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. First edition. Harper & Brothers, New York, pp 125–136. EL4
99. Tunbridge WM, Evered DC, Hall R, Appleton D, Brewis M, Clark F, Evans JG, Young E, Bird T, Smith PA 1977 The spectrum of thyroid disease in a community: the Whickham survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 7:481–493. EL1
100. de Bruin TW, van Barlingen H, van Linde-Sibenius Trip M, van Vuurst de Vries AR, Akveld MJ, Erkelens DW 1993 Lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein B plasma concentrations in hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76:121–126. EL3
101. Danese MD, Ladenson PW, Meinert CL, Powe NR 2000 Clinical review 115: effect of thyroxine therapy on serum lipoproteins in patients with mild thyroid failure: a quantitative review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:2993–3001. EL4
102. Ness-Abramof R, Nabriski DA, Shapiro MS, Tripto-Shkolnik L, Katz B, Weiss E, Shenkman L 2009 Cardiac troponin T is not increased in patients with hypothyroidism. Intern Med J 39:117–120. EL3
103. Ladenson PW, Singer PA, Ain KB, Bagchi N, Bigos ST, Levy EG, Smith SA, Daniels GH, Cohen HD 2000 American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Arch Intern Med 160:1573–1575. EL4
104. American Academy of Family Physicians 2002 Summary of policy recommendations for periodic health examinations. American Academy of Family Physicians: Leawood, KS. EL4
105. Helfand M, Redfern CC 1998 Clinical guideline, part 2. Screening for thyroid disease: an update. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 129:144–158. EL4
106. Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, Sawin CT, Col NF, Cobin RH, Franklyn JA, Hershman JM, Burman KD, Denke MA, Gorman C, Cooper RS, Weissman NJ 2004 Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. JAMA 291:228–238. EL4
107. Vanderpump MP, Ahlquist JA, Franklyn JA, Clayton RN 1996 Consensus statement for good practice and audit measures in the management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Endocrinology and Diabetes Committee of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and the Society for Endocrinology. BMJ 313:539–544. EL4
108. Helfand M 2004 Screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in nonpregnant adults: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 140:128–141. EL4
109. Tudhope GR, Wilson GM 1962 Deficiency of vitamin B12 in hypothyroidism. Lancet 1:703–706. EL3
110. Carmel R, Spencer CA 1982 Clinical and subclinical thyroid disorders associated with pernicious anemia. Observations on abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and on a possible association of blood group O with hyperthyroidism. Arch Intern Med 142:1465–1469. EL3
111. Glatstein E, McHardy-Young S, Brast N, Eltringham JR, Kriss JP 1971 Alterations in serum thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid function following radiotherapy in patients with malignant lymphoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32:833–841. EL3
112. Constine LS, Donaldson SS, McDougall IR, Cox RS, Link MP, Kaplan HS 1984 Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy in children with Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 53:878–883. EL3
113. Liening DA, Duncan NO, Blakeslee DB, Smith DB 1990 Hypothyroidism following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 103:10–13. EL3
114. Hennessey JV, Jackson IMD. 1996 The interface between thyroid hormones and psychiatry. Endocrinologist 6:214–223. EL4
115. Rodondi N, den Elzen WP, Bauer DC, Cappola AR, Razvi S, Walsh JP, Asvold BO, Iervasi G, Imaizumi M, Collet TH, Bremner A, Maisonneuve P, Sgarbi JA, Khaw KT, Vanderpump MP, Newman AB, Cornuz J, Franklyn JA, Westendorp RG, Vittinghoff E, Gussekloo J 2010 Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. JAMA 304:1365–1374. EL2
116. Razvi S, Weaver JU, Vanderpump MP, Pearce SH 2010 The incidence of ischemic heart disease and mortality in people with subclinical hypothyroidism: reanalysis of the Whickham Survey cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1734–1740. EL3
117. Gencer B, Collet TH, Virgini V, Bauer DC, Gussekloo J, Cappola AR, Nanchen D, den Elzen WP, Balmer P, Luben RN, Iacoviello M, Triggiani V, Cornuz J, Newman AB, Khaw KT, Jukema JW, Westendorp RG, Vittinghoff E, Aujesky D, Rodondi N 2012 Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the risk of heart failure events: an individual participant data analysis from six prospective cohorts. Circulation 126:1040–1049. EL1
118. McQuade C, Skugor M, Brennan DM, Hoar B, Stevenson C, Hoogwerf BJ 2011 Hypothyroidism and moderate subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with increased all-cause mortality independent of coronary heart disease risk factors: a PreCIS database study. Thyroid 21:837–843. EL3
119. Ochs N, Auer R, Bauer DC, Nanchen D, Gussekloo J, Cornuz J, Rodondi N 2008 Meta-analysis: subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Ann Intern Med 148:832–845. EL1
120. Dessein PH, Joffe BI, Stanwix AE 2004 Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance in rheumatoid arthritis. Thyroid 14:443–446. EL3
121. Serter R, Demirbas B, Korukluoglu B, Culha C, Cakal E, Aral Y 2004 The effect of L-thyroxine replacement therapy on lipid based cardiovascular risk in subclinical hypothyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest 27:897–903. EL2
122. Iqbal A, Jorde R, Figenschau Y 2006 Serum lipid levels in relation to serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and the effect of thyroxine treatment on serum lipid levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Tromso Study. J Intern Med 260:53–61. EL1
123. Caraccio N, Ferrannini E, Monzani F 2002 Lipoprotein profile in subclinical hypothyroidism: response to levothyroxine replacement, a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1533–1538. EL2
124. Taddei S, Caraccio N, Virdis A, Dardano A, Versari D, Ghiadoni L, Salvetti A, Ferrannini E, Monzani F 2003 Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in subclinical hypothyroidism: beneficial effect of levothyroxine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3731–3737. EL3
125. Dardano A, Caraccio N, Monzani F 2006 Evaluation of endothelial function in subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid 16:200–201. EL4
126. Dardano A, Monzani F 2007 Thyroid function and carotid artery intima-media thickness. Circ J 71:993. EL4
127. Negro R, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, Tinelli A, Mangieri T, Stagnaro-Green A 2010 Increased pregnancy loss rate in thyroid antibody negative women with TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E44–48. EL2
128. Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Sterling K 1970 Conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in athyreotic human subjects. J Clin Invest 49:855–864. EL1
129. Petersen K, Bengtsson C, Lapidus L, Lindstedt G, Nystrom E 1990 Morbidity, mortality, and quality of life for patients treated with levothyroxine. Arch Intern Med 150:2077–2081. EL2
130. Jonklaas J, Davidson B, Bhagat S, Soldin SJ 2008 Triiodothyronine levels in athyreotic individuals during levothyroxine therapy. JAMA 299:769–777. EL2
131. Saravanan P, Chau WF, Roberts N, Vedhara K, Greenwood R, Dayan CM 2002 Psychological well-being in patients on ‘adequate’ doses of l-thyroxine: results of a large, controlled community-based questionnaire study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 57:577–585. EL2
132. Bunevicius R, Kazanavicius G, Zalinkevicius R, Prange AJ Jr 1999 Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 340:424–429. EL2
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