1. Abalovich M, Amino N, Barbour LA, Cobin RH, De Groot LJ, Glinoer D, Mandel SJ, Stagnaro-Green A 2007 Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92(8 Suppl):S1–47.
2. Gharib H, Cobin RH, Dickey RA 1999 Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy: position statement from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocr Pract 5:367–368.
3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Ratings: Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence. 2003 Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, Third Edition: Period Updates, 2000–2003. Available at: www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/3rduspstf/ratings.htm (accessed June 13, 2011).
4. van Raaij JM, Vermaat-Miedema SH, Schonk CM, Peek ME, Hautvast JG 1987 Energy requirements of pregnancy in The Netherlands. Lancet 2:953–955.
5. Glinoer D 1997 The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of endocrine adaptation from physiology to pathology. Endocr Rev 18:404–433.
6. Baloch Z, Carayon P, Conte-Devolx B, Demers LM, Feldt- Rasmussen U, Henry JF, LiVosli VA, Niccoli-Sire P, John R, Ruf J, Smyth PP, Spencer CA, Stockigt JR; Guidelines Committee, National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry 2003 Laboratory medicine practice guidelines. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease. Thyroid 13:3–126.
7. Soldin OP, Tractenberg RE, Hollowell JG, Jonklaas J, Janicic N, Soldin SJ 2004 Trimester-specific changes in maternal thyroid hormone, thyrotropin, and thyroglobulin concentrations during gestation: trends and associations across trimesters in iodine sufficiency. Thyroid 14:1084–1090.
8. Negro R 2009 Significance and management of low TSH in pregnancy. In: Lazarus J, Pirags V, Butz S (eds) The Thyroid and Reproduction. Georg Thieme Verlag, New York, pp 84–95.
9. Kahric-Janicic N, Soldin SJ, Soldin OP, West T, Gu J, Jonklaas J 2007 Tandem mass spectrometry improves the accuracy of free thyroxine measurements during pregnancy. Thyroid 17:303–311.
10. Soldin OP, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Weiderpass E, Soldin SJ 2004 Trimester-specific reference intervals for thyroxine and triiodothyronine in pregnancy in iodine-sufficient women using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry and immunoassays. Clin Chim Acta 349:181–189.
11. Roti E, Gardini E, Minelli R, Bianconi L, Flisi M 1991 Thyroid function evaluation by different commercially available free thyroid hormone measurement kits in term pregnant women and their newborns. J Endocrinol Invest 14:1–9.
12. Sapin R, D’Herbomez M, Schlienger JL 2004 Free thyroxine measured with equilibrium dialysis and nine immunoassays decreases in late pregnancy. Clin Lab 50:581–584.
13. Haddow JE, Knight GJ, Palomaki GE, McClain MR, Pulkkinen AJ 2004 The reference range and within-person variability of thyroid stimulating hormone during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. J Med Screen 11:170–174.
14. Stricker R, Echenard M, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Perez V, Quinn FA, Stricker R 2007 Evaluation of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy: the importance of using gestational age-specific reference intervals. Eur J Endocrinol 157:509–514.
15. Panesar NS, Li CY, Rogers MS 2001 Reference intervals for thyroid hormones in pregnant Chinese women. Ann Clin Biochem 38:329–332.
16. Soldin OP, Soldin D, Sastoque M 2007 Gestation-specific thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in the United States and worldwide. Ther Drug Monit 29:553–559.
17. Bocos-Terraz JP, Izquierdo-Alvarez S, Bancalero-Flores JL, Alvarez-Lahuerta R, Aznar-Sauca A, Real-Lopez E, Ibanez- Marco R, Bocanegra-Garcia V, Rivera-Sanchez G 2009 Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women. BMC Res Notes 2:237.
18. Marwaha RK, Chopra S, Gopalakrishnan S, Sharma B, Kanwar RS, Sastry A, Singh S 2008 Establishment of reference range for thyroid hormones in normal pregnant Indian women. BJOG 115:602–606.
19. Dashe JS, Casey BM, Wells CE, McIntire DD, Byrd EW, Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG 2005 Thyroid-stimulating hormone in singleton and twin pregnancy: importance of gestational age-specific reference ranges. Obstet Gynecol 106:753–757.
20. Lockwood CM, Grenache DG, Gronowski AM 2009 Serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations greater than 400,000 IU/L are invariably associated with suppressed serum thyrotropin concentrations. Thyroid 19:863–868.
21. Price A, Obel O, Cresswell J, Catch I, Rutter S, Barik S, Heller SR, Weetman AP 2001 Comparison of thyroid function in pregnant and non-pregnant Asian and western Caucasian women. Clin Chim Acta 308:91–98.
22. Walker JA, Illions EH, Huddleston JF, Smallridge RC 2005 Racial comparisons of thyroid function and autoimmunity during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstet Gynecol 106:1365–1371.
23. Benhadi N, Wiersinga WM, Reitsma JB, Vrijkotte TG, van der Wal MF, Bonsel GJ 2007 Ethnic differences in TSH but not in free T4 concentrations or TPO antibodies during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 66:765–770.
24. Thienpont LM, Van Uytfanghe K, Beastall G, Faix JD, Ieiri T, Miller WG, Nelson JC, Ronin C, Ross HA, Thijssen JH, Toussaint B, IFCC Working Group on Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests 2010 Report of the IFCC Working Group for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests; part 1: thyroid-stimulating hormone. Clin Chem 56:902–911.
25. Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG 2006 Subclinical hyperthyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 107:337–341.
26. Toft AD, Beckett GJ 2005 Measuring serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone and assessing thyroid hormone transport. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds) Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 9th edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 329–344.
27. Anckaert E, Poppe K, Van Uytfanghe K, Schiettecatte J, Foulon W, Thienpont LM 2010 FT4 immunoassays may display a pattern during pregnancy similar to the equilibrium dialysis ID-LC/tandem MS candidate reference measurement procedure in spite of susceptibility towards binding protein alterations. Clin Chim Acta 411:1348–1353.
28. Negro R, Formoso G, Mangieri T, Pezzarossa A, Dazzi D, Hassan H 2006 Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2587–2591.
29. Sapin R, d’Herbomez M 2003 Free thyroxine measured by equilibrium dialysis and nine immunoassays in sera with various serum thyroxine-binding capacities. Clin Chem 49:1531–1535.
30. Lee RH, Spencer CA, Mestman JH, Miller EA, Petrovic I, Braverman LE, Goodwin TM 2009 Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:260.e1–260.e6.
31. Stockigt J 2003 Assessment of thyroid function: towards an integrated laboratory—clinical approach. Clin Biochem Rev 24:109–122.
32. Yue B, Rockwood AL, Sandrock T, La’ulu SL, Kushnir MM, Meikle AW 2008 Free thyroid hormones in serum by direct equilibrium dialysis and online solid-phase extraction—liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem 54:642–651.
33. Jonklaas J, Kahric-Janicic N, Soldin OP, Soldin SJ 2009 Correlations of free thyroid hormones measured by tandem mass spectrometry and immunoassay with thyroid- stimulating hormone across 4 patient populations. Clin Chem 55:1380–1388.
34. Thienpont LM, Van Uytfanghe K, Beastall G, Faix JD, Ieiri T, Miller WG, Nelson JC, Ronin C, Ross HA, Thijssen JH, Toussaint B, IFCC Working Group on Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests 2010 Report of the IFCC Working Group for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests; part 2: free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Clin Chem 56:912–920.
35. Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE, McIntire DD, Byrd W, Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG 2005 Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 105:239–245.
36. Allan WC, Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Williams JR, Mitchell ML, Hermos RJ, Faix JD, Klein RZ 2000 Maternal thyroid deficiency and pregnancy complications: implications for population screening. J Med Screen 7:127–130.
37. Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Allan WC, Williams JR, Knight GJ, Gagnon J, O’Heir CE, Mitchell ML, Hermos RJ, Waisbren SE, Faix JD, Klein RZ 1999 Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. N Engl J Med 341:549–555.
38. Abalovich M, Gutierrez S, Alcaraz G, Maccallini G, Garcia A, Levalle O 2002 Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism complicating pregnancy. Thyroid 12:63–68.
39. Leung AS, Millar LK, Koonings PP, Montoro M, Mestman JH 1993 Perinatal outcome in hypothyroid pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 81:349–353.
40. Negro R, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, Tinelli A, Mangieri T, Stagnaro-Green A 2010 Universal screening versus case finding for detection and treatment of thyroid hormonal dysfunction during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1699–1707.
41. Negro R, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, Tinelli A, Mangieri T, Stagnaro-Green A 2010 Increased pregnancy loss rate in thyroid antibody negative women with TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E44–8.
42. Benhadi N, Wiersinga WM, Reitsma JB, Vrijkotte TG, Bonsel GJ 2009 Higher maternal TSH levels in pregnancy are associated with increased risk for miscarriage, fetal or neonatal death. Eur J Endocrinol 160:985–991.
43. Cleary-Goldman J, Malone FD, Lambert-Messerlian G, Sullivan L, Canick J, Porter TF, Luthy D, Gross S, Bianchi DW, D’Alton ME 2008 Maternal thyroid hypofunction and pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 112:85–92.
44. Mannisto T, Vaarasmaki M, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL, Ruokonen A, Surcel HM, Bloigu A, Jarvelin MR, Suvanto-Luukkonen E 2009 Perinatal outcome of children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction or antibodies: a prospective population-based cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:772–779.
45. Mannisto T, Vaarasmaki M, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL, Ruokonen A, Surcel HM, Bloigu A, Jarvelin MR, Suvanto E 2010 Thyroid dysfunction and autoantibodies during pregnancy as predictive factors of pregnancy complications and maternal morbidity in later life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1084–1094.
46. Ashoor G, Maiz N, Rotas M, Jawdat F, Nicolaides KH 2010 Maternal thyroid function at 11 to 13 weeks of gestation and subsequent fetal death. Thyroid 20:989–993.
47. Man EB, Brown JF, Serunian SA 1991 Maternal hypothyroxinemia: psychoneurological deficits of progeny. Ann Clin Lab Sci 21:227–239.
48. Man EB, Jones WS, Holden RH, Mellits ED 1971 Thyroid function in human pregnancy. 8. Retardation of progeny aged 7 years; relationships to maternal age and maternal thyroid function. Am J Obstet Gynecol 111:905–916.
49. de Escobar GM, Obregon MJ, del Rey FE 2004 Maternal thyroid hormones early in pregnancy and fetal brain development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 18:225–248.
50. Pop VJ, Brouwers EP, Vader HL, Vulsma T, van Baar AL, de Vijlder JJ 2003 Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during early pregnancy and subsequent child development: a 3- year follow-up study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 59:282–288.
51. Li Y, Shan Z, Teng W, Yu X, Li Y, Fan C, Teng X, Guo R, Wang H, Li J, Chen Y, Wang W, Chawinga M, Zhang L, Yang L, Zhao Y, Hua T 2010 Abnormalities of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy affect neuropsychological development of their children at 25–30 months. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 72:825–829.
52. Henrichs J, Bongers-Schokking JJ, Schenk JJ, Ghassabian A, Schmidt HG, Visser TJ, Hooijkaas H, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Hofman A, Jaddoe VV, Visser W, Steegers EA, Verhulst FC, de Rijke YB, Tiemeier H 2010 Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy and cognitive functioning in early childhood: the Generation R Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4227–4234.
53. Mandel SJ, Larsen PR, Seely EW, Brent GA 1990 Increased need for thyroxine during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 323:91–96.
54. Alexander EK, Marqusee E, Lawrence J, Jarolim P, Fischer GA, Larsen PR 2004 Timing and magnitude of increases in levothyroxine requirements during pregnancy in women with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 351:241–249.
56. Loh JA, Wartofsky L, Jonklaas J, Burman KD 2009 The magnitude of increased levothyroxine requirements in hypothyroid pregnant women depends upon the etiology of the hypothyroidism. Thyroid 19:269–275.
57. Yassa L, Marqusee E, Fawcett R, Alexander EK 2010 Thyroid hormone early adjustment in pregnancy (the THERAPY) trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3234–3241.
58. Abalovich M, Alcaraz G, Kleiman-Rubinsztein J, Pavlove MM, Cornelio C, Levalle O, Gutierrez S 2010 The relationship of preconception thyrotropin levels to requirements for increasing the levothyroxine dose during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid 20:1175–1178.
59. Galofre JC, Haber RS, Mitchell AA, Pessah R, Davies TF 2010 Increased postpartum thyroxine replacement in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Thyroid 20:901–908.
60. Glinoer D, Riahi M, Grun JP, Kinthaert J 1994 Risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women with asymptomatic autoimmune thyroid disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:197–204.
61. Gartner R, Gasnier BC, Dietrich JW, Krebs B, Angstwurm MW 2002 Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1687–1691.
62. Duntas LH, Mantzou E, Koutras DA 2003 Effects of a six month treatment with selenomethionine in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Eur J Endocrinol 148:389–393.
63. Mazokopakis EE, Papadakis JA, Papadomanolaki MG, Batistakis AG, Giannakopoulos TG, Protopapadakis EE, Ganotakis ES 2007 Effects of 12 months treatment with L- selenomethionine on serum anti-TPO Levels in Patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Thyroid 17:609–612.
64. Karanikas G, Schuetz M, Kontur S, Duan H, Kommata S, Schoen R, Antoni A, Kletter K, Dudczak R, Willheim M 2008 No immunological benefit of selenium in consecutive patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid 18:7–12.
65. Negro R, Greco G, Mangieri T, Pezzarossa A, Dazzi D, Hassan H 2007 The influence of selenium supplementation on postpartum thyroid status in pregnant women with thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1263–1268.
66. Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, Donahue RP, Trevisan M, Combs GF, Cappuccio FP, Ceriello A, Reid ME 2007 Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 147:217–223.
67. Braverman LE, Utiger RD 2005 Introduction to thyrotoxicosis. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds) Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 9th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 453–455.
68. Patil-Sisodia K, Mestman JH 2010 Graves hyperthyroidism and pregnancy: a clinical update. Endocr Pract 16:118–129.
69. Krassas GE, Poppe K, Glinoer D 2010 Thyroid function and human reproductive health. Endocr Rev 31:702–755.
70. Goodwin TM, Montoro M, Mestman JH 1992 Transient hyperthyroidism and hyperemesis gravidarum: clinical aspects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:648–652.
71. Tan JY, Loh KC, Yeo GS, Chee YC 2002 Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. BJOG 109: 683–688.
73. Verberg MF, Gillott DJ, Al-Fardan N, Grudzinskas JG 2005 Hyperemesis gravidarum, a literature review. Hum Reprod Update 11:527–539.
74. Hershman JM 1999 Human chorionic gonadotropin and the thyroid: hyperemesis gravidarum and trophoblastic tumors. Thyroid 9:653–657.
75. Grun JP, Meuris S, De Nayer P, Glinoer D 1997 The thyrotrophic role of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in the early stages of twin (versus single) pregnancies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 46:719–725.
76. Rodien P, Bremont C, Sanson ML, Parma J, Van Sande J, Costagliola S, Luton JP, Vassart G, Duprez L 1998 Familial gestational hyperthyroidism caused by a mutant thyrotropin receptor hypersensitive to human chorionic gonadotropin. N Engl J Med 339:1823–1826.
77. Glinoer D, Spencer CA 2010 Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why? Nat Rev Endocrinol 6:526–529.
78. Bouillon R, Naesens M, Van Assche FA, De Keyser L, De Moor P, Renaer M, De Vos P, De Roo M 1982 Thyroid function in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 143:922–926.
79. Laurberg P, Bournaud C, Karmisholt J, Orgiazzi J 2009 Management of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: focus on both maternal and foetal thyroid function, and caution against surgical thyroidectomy in pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol 160:1–8.
80. Davis LE, Lucas MJ, Hankins GD, Roark ML, Cunningham FG 1989 Thyrotoxicosis complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 160:63–70.
81. Millar LK, Wing DA, Leung AS, Koonings PP, Montoro MN, Mestman JH 1994 Low birth weight and preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated by hyperthyroidism. Obstet Gynecol 84:946–949.
82. Papendieck P, Chiesa A, Prieto L, Gruneiro-Papendieck L 2009 Thyroid disorders of neonates born to mothers with Graves’ disease. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 22:547–553.
83. Phoojaroenchanachai M, Sriussadaporn S, Peerapatdit T, Vannasaeng S, Nitiyanant W, Boonnamsiri V, Vichayanrat A 2001 Effect of maternal hyperthyroidism during late pregnancy on the risk of neonatal low birth weight. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 54:365–370.
84. Sheffield JS, Cunningham FG 2004 Thyrotoxicosis and heart failure that complicate pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:211–217.
85. Mandel SJ, Cooper DS 2001 The use of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:2354–2359.
87. Clementi M, Di Gianantonio E, Pelo E, Mammi I, Basile RT, Tenconi R 1999 Methimazole embryopathy: delineation of the phenotype. Am J Med Genet 83:43–46.
88. Barbero P, Valdez R, Rodriguez H, Tiscornia C, Mansilla E, Allons A, Coll S, Liascovich R 2008 Choanal atresia associated with maternal hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole: a case-control study. Am J Med Genet A 146A: 2390–2395.
89. Clementi M, Di Gianantonio E, Cassina M, Leoncini E, Botto LD, Mastroiacovo P, SAFE-Med Study Group 2010 Treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy and birth defects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E337–41.
90. Rivkees SA, Mattison DR 2009 Propylthiouracil (PTU) hepatoxicity in children and recommendations for discontinuation of use. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2009:132041.
91. Russo MW, Galanko JA, Shrestha R, Fried MW, Watkins P 2004 Liver transplantation for acute liver failure from drug induced liver injury in the United States. Liver Transpl 10:1018–1023.
92. Bahn RS, Burch HS, Cooper DS, Garber JR, Greenlee CM, Klein IL, Laurberg P, McDougall IR, Rivkees SA, Ross D, Sosa JA, Stan MN 2009 The role of propylthiouracil in the management of Graves’ disease in adults: report of a meeting jointly sponsored by the American Thyroid Association and the Food and Drug Administration. Thyroid 19:673–674.
94. Sherif IH, Oyan WT, Bosairi S, Carrascal SM 1991 Treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 70:461–463.
95. Mestman JH, Manning PR, Hodgman J 1974 Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy. Arch Intern Med 134:434–439.
97. Momotani N, Noh J, Oyanagi H, Ishikawa N, Ito K 1986 Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves’ disease during pregnancy. Optimal regimen for fetal thyroid status. N Engl J Med 315:24–28.
98. Ochoa-Maya MR, Frates MC, Lee-Parritz A, Seely EW 1999 Resolution of fetal goiter after discontinuation of propylthiouracil in a pregnant woman with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Thyroid 9:1111–1114.
100. Amino N, Tanizawa O, Mori H, Iwatani Y, Yamada T, Kurachi K, Kumahara Y, Miyai K 1982 Aggravation of thyrotoxicosis in early pregnancy and after delivery in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:108–112.
101. Laurberg P, Nygaard B, Glinoer D, Grussendorf M, Orgiazzi J 1998 Guidelines for TSH-receptor antibody measurements in pregnancy: results of an evidence-based symposium organized by the European Thyroid Association. Eur J Endocrinol 139:584–586.
102. Momotani N, Hisaoka T, Noh J, Ishikawa N, Ito K 1992 Effects of iodine on thyroid status of fetus versus mother in treatment of Graves’ disease complicated by pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:738–744.
103. Kempers MJ, van Tijn DA, van Trotsenburg AS, de Vijlder JJ, Wiedijk BM, Vulsma T 2003 Central congenital hypothyroidism due to gestational hyperthyroidism: detection where prevention failed. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:5851–5857.
104. Zwaveling-Soonawala N, van Trotsenburg P, Vulsma T 2009 Central hypothyroidism in an infant born to an adequately treated mother with Graves’ disease: an effect of maternally derived thyrotrophin receptor antibodies?. Thyroid 19:661–662.
105. Gruner C, Kollert A, Wildt L, Dorr HG, Beinder E, Lang N 2001 Intrauterine treatment of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism controlled by determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone in fetal serum. A case report and review of the literature. Fetal Diagn Ther 16:47–51.
106. Luton D, Le Gac I, Vuillard E, Castanet M, Guibourdenche J, Noel M, Toubert ME, Leger J, Boissinot C, Schlageter MH, Garel C, Tebeka B, Oury JF, Czernichow P, Polak M 2005 Management of Graves’ disease during pregnancy: the key role of fetal thyroid gland monitoring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:6093–6098.
107. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M 1992 Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism due to maternal TSH receptor antibodies. Thyroid 2:155–159.
108. Mitsuda N, Tamaki H, Amino N, Hosono T, Miyai K, Tanizawa O 1992 Risk factors for developmental disorders in infants born to women with Graves disease. Obstet Gynecol 80:359–364.
109. Peleg D, Cada S, Peleg A, Ben-Ami M 2002 The relationship between maternal serum thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin and fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis. Obstet Gynecol 99:1040–1043.
111. Polak M, Le Gac I, Vuillard E, Guibourdenche J, Leger J, Toubert ME, Madec AM, Oury JF, Czernichow P, Luton D 2004 Fetal and neonatal thyroid function in relation to maternal Graves’ disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 18:289–302.
112. Cohen O, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Sivan E, Dolitski M, Lipitz S, Achiron R 2003 Serial in utero ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal thyroid: a new complementary tool in the management of maternal hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Prenat Diagn 23:740–742.
113. Huel C, Guibourdenche J, Vuillard E, Ouahba J, Piketty M, Oury JF, Luton D 2009 Use of ultrasound to distinguish between fetal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on discovery of a goiter. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 33:412–420.
114. Porreco RP, Bloch CA 1990 Fetal blood sampling in the management of intrauterine thyrotoxicosis. Obstet Gynecol 76:509–512.
115. Daffos F, Capella-Pavlovsky M, Forestier F 1985 Fetal blood sampling during pregnancy with use of a needle guided by ultrasound: a study of 606 consecutive cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153:655–660.
116. Nachum Z, Rakover Y, Weiner E, Shalev E 2003 Graves’ disease in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of a selective invasive treatment protocol. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:159–165.
117. Kilpatrick S 2003 Umbilical blood sampling in women with thyroid disease in pregnancy: is it necessary? Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1–2.
120. Rotondi M, Cappelli C, Pirali B, Pirola I, Magri F, Fonte R, Castellano M, Rosei EA, Chiovato L 2008 The effect of pregnancy on subsequent relapse from Graves’ disease after a successful course of antithyroid drug therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3985–3988.
121. Benhaim Rochester D, Davies TF 2005 Increased risk of Graves’ disease after pregnancy. Thyroid 15:1287–1290.
122. Rotondi M, Pirali B, Lodigiani S, Bray S, Leporati P, Chytiris S, Balzano S, Magri F, Chiovato L 2008 The post partum period and the onset of Graves’ disease: an overestimated risk factor. Eur J Endocrinol 159:161–165.
123. Azizi F, Hedayati M 2002 Thyroid function in breast-fed infants whose mothers take high doses of methimazole. J Endocrinol Invest 25:493–496.
124. Azizi F, Bahrainian M, Khamseh ME, Khoshniat M 2003 Intellectual development and thyroid function in children who were breast-fed by thyrotoxic mothers taking methimazole. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 16:1239–1243.
125. Glinoer D 2007 The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy. Public Health Nutr 10:1542–1546.
126. Liberman CS, Pino SC, Fang SL, Braverman LE, Emerson CH 1998 Circulating iodide concentrations during and after pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3545–3549.
127. Brander L, Als C, Buess H, Haldimann F, Harder M, Hanggi W, Herrmann U, Lauber K, Niederer U, Zurcher T, Burgi U, Gerber H 2003 Urinary iodine concentration during pregnancy in an area of unstable dietary iodine intake in Switzerland. J Endocrinol Invest 26:389–396.
128. Azizi F, Smyth P 2009 Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70:803–809.
129. Andersen S, Karmisholt J, Pedersen KM, Laurberg P 2008 Reliability of studies of iodine intake and recommendations for number of samples in groups and in individuals. Br J Nutr 99:813–818.
130. Berghout A, Wiersinga W 1998 Thyroid size and thyroid function during pregnancy: an analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 138:536–542.
131. Delange FM, Dunn JT 2005 Iodine deficiency. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds) Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 9th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 264–288.
132. World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders/United Nations Children’s Fund (WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF) 2007 Assessment of the iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. World Health Organization, Geneva.
133. Vermiglio F, Lo Presti VP, Castagna MG, Violi MA, Moleti M, Finocchiaro MD, Mattina F, Artemisia A, Trimarchi F 1999 Increased risk of maternal thyroid failure with pregnancy progression in an iodine deficient area with major iodine deficiency disorders. Thyroid 9:19–24.
134. de Escobar GM, Obregon MJ, del Rey FE 2007 Iodine deficiency and brain development in the first half of pregnancy. Public Health Nutr 10:1554–1570.
135. Costeira MJ, Oliveira P, Santos NC, Ares S, Saenz-Rico B, Morreale de Escobar G, Palha JA 2011 Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region. J Pediatr 159:447–453.
137. Vermiglio F, Lo Presti VP, Moleti M, Sidoti M, Tortorella G, Scaffidi G, Castagna MG, Mattina F, Violi MA, Crisa A, Artemisia A, Trimarchi F 2004 Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in the offspring of mothers exposed to mild-moderate iodine deficiency: a possible novel iodine deficiency disorder in developed countries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:6054–6060.
138. Soldin OP, Soldin SJ, Pezzullo JC 2003 Urinary iodine percentile ranges in the United States. Clin Chim Acta 328:185–190.
139. Caldwell KL, Jones R, Hollowell JG 2005 Urinary iodine concentration: United States National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2002. Thyroid 15:692–699.
140. Caldwell KL, Makhmudov AA, Ely EK, Jarrett JM, Henahan D, Jones RL 2009 Iodine status of the U.S. population, NHANES 2005–2006. Thyroid 19:S26–S27.
141. Caldwell KL, Miller GA, Wang RY, Jain RB, Jones RL 2008 Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004. Thyroid 18: 1207–1214.
142. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, Flanders DW, Gunter EW, Maberly GF, Braverman LE, Pino S, Miller DT, Garbe PL, DeLozier DM, Jackson RJ 1998 Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3401–3408.
143. Perrine CG, Herrick K, Serdula MK, Sullivan KM 2010 Some subgroups of reproductive age women in the United States may be at risk for iodine deficiency. J Nutr 140:1489–1494.
144. Pearce EN, Leung AM, Blount BC, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Valentin-Blasini L, Braverman LE 2007 Breast milk iodine and perchlorate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1673–1677.
145. Kirk AB, Martinelango PK, Tian K, Dutta A, Smith EE, Dasgupta PK 2005 Perchlorate and iodide in dairy and breast milk. Environ Sci Technol 39:2011–2017.
147. Pharoah PO, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS 1971 Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Lancet 1:308–310.
148. O’Donnell KJ, Rakeman MA, Zhi-Hong D, Xue-Yi C, Mei ZY, DeLong N, Brenner G, Tai M, Dong W, DeLong GR 2002 Effects of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on child growth and development at school age. Dev Med Child Neurol 44:76–81.
149. Fierro-Benitez R, Cazar R, Stanbury JB, Rodriguez P, Garces F, Fierro-Renoy F, Estrella E 1988 Effects on school children of prophylaxis of mothers with iodized oil in an area of iodine deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest 11:327–335.
150. Cao XY, Jiang XM, Dou ZH, Rakeman MA, Zhang ML, O’Donnell K, Ma T, Amette K, DeLong N, DeLong GR 1994 Timing of vulnerability of the brain to iodine deficiency in endemic cretinism. N Engl J Med 331:1739–1744.
151. DeLong GR, Leslie PW, Wang SH, Jiang XM, Zhang ML, Rakeman M, Jiang JY, Ma T, Cao XY 1997 Effect on infant mortality of iodination of irrigation water in a severely iodine-deficient area of China. Lancet 350:771–773.
152. Chaouki ML, Benmiloud M 1994 Prevention of iodine deficiency disorders by oral administration of lipiodol during pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol 130:547–551.
153. Antonangeli L, Maccherini D, Cavaliere R, Di Giulio C, Reinhardt B, Pinchera A, Aghini-Lombardi F 2002 Comparison of two different doses of iodide in the prevention of gestational goiter in marginal iodine deficiency: a longitudinal study. Eur J Endocrinol 147:29–34.
154. Berbel P, Mestre JL, Santamaria A, Palazon I, Franco A, Graells M, Gonzalez-Torga A, de Escobar GM 2009 Delayed neurobehavioral development in children born to pregnant women with mild hypothyroxinemia during the first month of gestation: the importance of early iodine supplementation. Thyroid 19:511–519.
155. Glinoer D, De Nayer P, Delange F, Lemone M, Toppet V, Spehl M, Grun JP, Kinthaert J, Lejeune B 1995A randomized trial for the treatment of mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal effects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:258–269.
156. Liesenkotter KP, Gopel W, Bogner U, Stach B, Gruters A 1996 Earliest prevention of endemic goiter by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol 134:443–448.
157. Nohr SB, Laurberg P 2000 Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:623–627.
158. Pedersen KM, Laurberg P, Iversen E, Knudsen PR, Gregersen HE, Rasmussen OS, Larsen KR, Eriksen GM, Johannesen PL 1993 Amelioration of some pregnancy- associated variations in thyroid function by iodine supplementation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:1078–1083.
159. Romano R, Jannini EA, Pepe M, Grimaldi A, Olivieri M, Spennati P, Cappa F, D’Armiento M 1991 The effects of iodoprophylaxis on thyroid size during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:482–485.
160. Velasco I, Carreira M, Santiago P, Muela JA, Garcia-Fuentes E, Sanchez-Munoz B, Garriga MJ, Gonzalez-Fernandez MC, Rodriguez A, Caballero FF, Machado A, Gonzalez- Romero S, Anarte MT, Soriguer F 2009 Effect of iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy on neurocognitive development of children during the first two years of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3234–3241.
161. Trumbo P, Yates AA, Schlicker S, Poos M 2001 Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J Am Diet Assoc 101:294–301.
162. U.S. Salt Institute 2007 Iodized salt. Available at www .saltinstitute.org/Uses-benefits/Salt-in-Food/Essential-nutrient/Iodized-salt (accessed September 12, 2011).
163. Galton DM, Petersson LG, Erb HN 1986 Milk iodine residues in herds practicing iodophor premilking teat disinfection. J Dairy Sci 69:267–271.
164. Conrad LM 3rd, Hemken RW 1978 Milk iodine as influenced by an iodophor teat dip. J Dairy Sci 61:776–780.
165. Pearce EN, Pino S, He X, Bazrafshan HR, Lee SL, Braverman LE 2004 Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows’ milk, and infant formula in the Boston area. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3421–3424.
167. Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association; Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, Dunn JT, Franklyn JA, Hollowell JG, Lamm SH, Mitchell ML, Pearce E, Robbins J, Rovet JF 2006 Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation—United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid 16:949–951.
168. Gregory CO, Serdula MK, Sullivan KM 2009 Use of supplements with and without iodine in women of childbearing age in the United States. Thyroid 19:1019–1020.
169. Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE 2009 Iodine content of prenatal multivitamins in the United States. N Engl J Med 360:939–940.
171. Wolff J, Chaikoff IL 1948 Plasma inorganic iodide as a homeostatic regulator of thyroid function. J Biol Chem 174:555–564.
172. Ellish NJ, Saboda K, O’Connor J, Nasca PC, Stanek EJ, Boyle C 1996A prospective study of early pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod 11:406–412.
173. Fisher DA, Klein AH 1981 Thyroid development and disorders of thyroid function in the newborn. N Engl J Med 304:702–712.
174. Theodoropoulos T, Braverman LE, Vagenakis AG 1979 Iodide-induced hypothyroidism: a potential hazard during perinatal life. Science 205:502–503.
175. Fang MC, Stafford RS, Ruskin JN, Singer DE 2004 National trends in antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic medication use in atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 164:55–60.
176. Aiba M, Ninomiya J, Furuya K, Arai H, Ishikawa H, Asaumi S, Takagi A, Ohwada S, Morishita Y 1999 Induction of a critical elevation of povidone-iodine absorption in the treatment of a burn patient: report of a case. Surg Today 29:157–159.
177. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, O’Connor JF, Baird DD, Schlatterer JP, Canfield RE, Armstrong EG, Nisula BC 1988 Incidence of early loss of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 319: 189–194.
178. Toth B, Jeschke U, Rogenhofer N, Scholz C, Wurfel W, Thaler CJ, Makrigiannakis A 2010 Recurrent miscarriage: current concepts in diagnosis and treatment. J Reprod Immunol 85:25–32.
179. Dudley DJ 2007 Diabetic-associated stillbirth: incidence, pathophysiology, and prevention. Clin Perinatol 34:611–26, vii.
180. De Vivo A, Mancuso A, Giacobbe A, Moleti M, Maggio Savasta L, De Dominici R, Priolo AM, Vermiglio F 2010 Thyroid function in women found to have early pregnancy loss. Thyroid 20:633–637.
181. Stagnaro-Green A, Roman SH, Cobin RH, el-Harazy E, Alvarez-Marfany M, Davies TF 1990 Detection of at-risk pregnancy by means of highly sensitive assays for thyroid autoantibodies. JAMA 264:1422–1425.
182. Iijima T, Tada H, Hidaka Y, Mitsuda N, Murata Y, Amino N 1997 Effects of autoantibodies on the course of pregnancy and fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol 90:364–369.
183. Glinoer D, Soto MF, Bourdoux P, Lejeune B, Delange F, Lemone M, Kinthaert J, Robijn C, Grun JP, de Nayer P 1991 Pregnancy in patients with mild thyroid abnormalities: maternal and neonatal repercussions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:421–427.
184. Sieiro Netto L, Medina Coeli C, Micmacher E, Mamede Da Costa S, Nazar L, Galvao D, Buescu A, Vaisman M 2004 Influence of thyroid autoimmunity and maternal age on the risk of miscarriage. Am J Reprod Immunol 52:312–316.
185. Bagis T, Gokcel A, Saygili ES 2001 Autoimmune thyroid disease in pregnancy and the postpartum period: relationship to spontaneous abortion. Thyroid 11:1049–1053.
186. Sezer K, Kamel N, Unlu C, Celik HK 2009 Impact of first trimester and postpartum period thyroid autoantibodies on abortus incidence in Turkish pregnant women. Gynecol Endocrinol 25:387–391.
187. Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM 2004 Thyroid autoimmunity and miscarriage. Eur J Endocrinol 150:751–755.
188. Imaizumi M, Pritsker A, Kita M, Ahmad L, Unger P, Davies T 2001 Pregnancy and murine thyroiditis: thyroglobulin immunization leads to fetal loss in specific allogeneic pregnancies. Endocrinology 142:823–829.
189. Matalon ST, Blank M, Levy Y, Carp HJ, Arad A, Burek L, Grunebaum E, Sherer Y, Ornoy A, Refetoff S, Weiss RE, Rose NR, Shoenfeld Y 2003 The pathogenic role of anti- thyroglobulin antibody on pregnancy: evidence from an active immunization model in mice. Hum Reprod 18: 1094–1099.
190. Lee YL, Ng HP, Lau KS, Liu WM, O WS, Yeung WS, Kung AW 2009 Increased fetal abortion rate in autoimmune thyroid disease is related to circulating TPO autoantibodies in an autoimmune thyroiditis animal model. Fertil Steril 91:2104–2109.
191. Lee RM, Silver RM 2000 Recurrent pregnancy loss: summary and clinical recommendations. Semin Reprod Med 18:433–440.
192. Baek KH, Lee EJ, Kim YS 2007 Recurrent pregnancy loss: the key potential mechanisms. Trends Mol Med 13: 310–317.
193. Iravani AT, Saeedi MM, Pakravesh J, Hamidi S, Abbasi M 2008 Thyroid autoimmunity and recurrent spontaneous abortion in Iran: a case-control study. Endocr Pract 14: 458–464.
194. Kutteh WH, Yetman DL, Carr AC, Beck LA, Scott RT Jr 1999 Increased prevalence of antithyroid antibodies identified in women with recurrent pregnancy loss but not in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril 71:843–848.
195. Esplin MS, Branch DW, Silver R, Stagnaro-Green A 1998 Thyroid autoantibodies are not associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:1583–1586.
196. Pratt DE, Kaberlein G, Dudkiewicz A, Karande V, Gleicher N 1993 The association of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid nonpregnant women with recurrent first trimester abortions in the next pregnancy. Fertil Steril 60:1001–1005.
197. Rushworth FH, Backos M, Rai R, Chilcott IT, Baxter N, Regan L 2000 Prospective pregnancy outcome in untreated recurrent miscarriers with thyroid autoantibodies. Hum Reprod 15:1637–1639.
198. De Carolis C, Greco E, Guarino MD, Perricone C, Dal Lago A, Giacomelli R, Fontana L, Perricone R 2004 Anti-thyroid antibodies and antiphospholipid syndrome: evidence of reduced fecundity and of poor pregnancy outcome in recurrent spontaneous aborters. Am J Reprod Immunol 52:263–266.
199. Kiprov DD, Nachtigall RD, Weaver RC, Jacobson A, Main EK, Garovoy MR 1996 The use of intravenous immunoglobulin in recurrent pregnancy loss associated with combined alloimmune and autoimmune abnormalities. Am J Reprod Immunol 36:228–234.
200. Stricker RB, Steinleitner A, Bookoff CN, Weckstein LN, Winger EE 2000 Successful treatment of immunologic abortion with low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Fertil Steril 73:536–540.
201. Vaquero E, Lazzarin N, De Carolis C, Valensise H, Moretti C, Ramanini C 2000 Mild thyroid abnormalities and recurrent spontaneous abortion: diagnostic and therapeutical approach. Am J Reprod Immunol 43:204–208.
202. Poppe K, Glinoer D, Tournaye H, Devroey P, van Steirteghem A, Kaufman L, Velkeniers B 2003 Assisted reproduction and thyroid autoimmunity: an unfortunate combination? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4149–4152.
203. Bussen S, Steck T, Dietl J 2000 Increased prevalence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid women with a history of recurrent in-vitro fertilization failure. Hum Reprod 15: 545–548.
204. Kim CH, Chae HD, Kang BM, Chang YS 1998 Influence of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid women on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome. Am J Reprod Immunol 40:2–8.
205. Negro R, Formoso G, Coppola L, Presicce G, Mangieri T, Pezzarossa A, Dazzi D 2007 Euthyroid women with autoimmune disease undergoing assisted reproduction technologies: the role of autoimmunity and thyroid function. J Endocrinol Invest 30:3–8.
206. Kilic S, Tasdemir N, Yilmaz N, Yuksel B, Gul A, Batioglu S 2008 The effect of anti-thyroid antibodies on endometrial volume, embryo grade and IVF outcome. Gynecol Endocrinol 24:649–655.
207. Toulis KA, Goulis DG, Venetis CA, Kolibianakis EM, Negro R, Tarlatzis BC, Papadimas I 2010 Risk of spontaneous miscarriage in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity undergoing IVF: a meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 162:643–652.
208. Negro R, Mangieri T, Coppola L, Presicce G, Casavola EC, Gismondi R, Locorotondo G, Caroli P, Pezzarossa A, Dazzi D, Hassan H 2005 Levothyroxine treatment in thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies: a prospective study. Hum Reprod 20:1529–1533.
209. Martin JA, Osterman MJ, Sutton PD 2010 Are preterm births on the decline in the United States? Recent data from the National Vital Statistics System. NCHS Data Brief 39:1–8.
210. Mathews TJ, Menacker F, MacDorman MF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics 2004 Infant mortality statistics from the 2002 period: linked birth/infant death data set. Natl Vital Stat Rep 53:1–29.
211. Petrou S 2005 The economic consequences of preterm birth during the first 10 years of life. BJOG 112 Suppl 1:10–15.
212. Goldenberg RL, Culhane JF, Iams JD, Romero R 2008 Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet 371: 75–84.
213. Luewan S, Chakkabut P, Tongsong T 2010 Outcomes of pregnancy complicated with hyperthyroidism: a cohort study. Arch Gynecol Obstet 283:243.
215. Ghafoor F, Mansoor M, Malik T, Malik MS, Khan AU, Edwards R, Akhtar W 2006 Role of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in the outcome of pregnancy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 16:468–471.
216. Haddow JE, Cleary-Goldman J, McClain MR, Palomaki GE, Neveux LM, Lambert-Messerlian G, Canick JA, Malone FD, Porter TF, Nyberg DA, Bernstein PS, D’Alton ME; First- and Second-Trimester Risk of Aneuploidy (FaSTER) Research Consortium 2010 Thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in early pregnancy and preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol 116:58–62.
217. Struve CW, Haupt S, Ohlen S 1993 Influence of frequency of previous pregnancies on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in women without clinical evidence of thyroid disease. Thyroid 3:7–9.
218. Kung AW, Chau MT, Lao TT, Tam SC, Low LC 2002 The effect of pregnancy on thyroid nodule formation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1010–1014.
219. Tan GH, Gharib H, Goellner JR, van Heerden JA, Bahn RS 1996 Management of thyroid nodules in pregnancy. Arch Intern Med 156:2317–2320.
220. Marley EF, Oertel YC 1997 Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions in 57 pregnant and postpartum women. Diagn Cytopathol 16:122–125.
221. Rosen IB, Walfish PG, Nikore V 1985 Pregnancy and surgical thyroid disease. Surgery 98:1135–1140.
222. Smith LH, Danielsen B, Allen ME, Cress R 2003 Cancer associated with obstetric delivery: results of linkage with the California cancer registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189: 1128–1135.
223. Loh KC 1997 Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma: a meta-review of case series. Thyroid 7:107–113.
225. Tucker MA, Jones PH, Boice JD Jr, Robison LL, Stone BJ, Stovall M, Jenkin RD, Lubin JH, Baum ES, Siegel SE 1991 Therapeutic radiation at a young age is linked to secondary thyroid cancer. The Late Effects Study Group. Cancer Res 51:2885–2888.
226. Tan GH, Gharib H, Reading CC 1995 Solitary thyroid nodule. Comparison between palpation and ultrasonography. Arch Intern Med 155:2418–2423.
227. Gharib H, Papini E, Valcavi R, Baskin HJ, Crescenzi A, Dottorini ME, Duick DS, Guglielmi R, Hamilton CR Jr, Zeiger MA, Zini M; AACE/AME Task Force on Thyroid Nodules 2006 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. Endocr Pract 12: 63–102.
228. Brander A, Viikinkoski P, Tuuhea J, Voutilainen L, Kivisaari L 1992 Clinical versus ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland in common clinical practice. J Clin Ultrasound 20:37–42.
229. Papini E, Guglielmi R, Bianchini A, Crescenzi A, Taccogna S, Nardi F, Panunzi C, Rinaldi R, Toscano V, Pacella CM 2002 Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1941–1946.
230. Bennedbaek FN, Perrild H, Hegedus L 1999 Diagnosis and treatment of the solitary thyroid nodule. Results of a European survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 50:357–363.
231. Bennedbaek FN, Hegedus L 2000 Management of the solitary thyroid nodule: results of a North American survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:2493–2498.
232. Hegedus L, Bonnema SJ, Bennedbaek FN 2003 Management of simple nodular goiter: current status and future perspectives. Endocr Rev 24:102–132.
233. Costante G, Meringolo D, Durante C, Bianchi D, Nocera M, Tumino S, Crocetti U, Attard M, Maranghi M, Torlontano M, Filetti S 2007 Predictive value of serum calcitonin levels for preoperative diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a cohort of 5817 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92: 450–455.
234. Belfiore A, La Rosa GL 2001 Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 30: 361–400.
235. Goellner JR, Gharib H, Grant CS, Johnson DA 1987 Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid, 1980 to 1986. Acta Cytol 31:587–590.
238. Oertel YC 1996 Fine-needle aspiration and the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 25:69–91.
239. Singer PA 1996 Evaluation and management of the solitary thyroid nodule. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 29:577–591.
240. Powers CN, Frable WJ 1996 Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Head and Neck. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.
241. Choe W, McDougall IR 1994 Thyroid cancer in pregnant women: diagnostic and therapeutic management. Thyroid 4:433–435.
243. Pauwels EK, Thomson WH, Blokland JA, Schmidt ME, Bourguignon M, El-Maghraby TA, Broerse JJ, Harding LK 1999 Aspects of fetal thyroid dose following iodine-131 administration during early stages of pregnancy in patients suffering from benign thyroid disorders. Eur J Nucl Med 26:1453–1457.
244. Berg GE, Nystrom EH, Jacobsson L, Lindberg S, Lindstedt RG, Mattsson S, Niklasson CA, Noren AH, Westphal OG 1998 Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in a pregnant women. J Nucl Med 39:357–361.
245. Zanzonico PB 1997 Radiation dose to patients and relatives incident to 131I therapy. Thyroid 7:199–204.
246. Herzon FS, Morris DM, Segal MN, Rauch G, Parnell T 1994 Coexistent thyroid cancer and pregnancy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120:1191–1193.
247. Moosa M, Mazzaferri EL 1997 Outcome of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed in pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2862–2866.
248. Vini L, Hyer S, Pratt B, Harmer C 1999 Good prognosis in thyroid cancer found incidentally at surgery for thyrotoxicosis. Postgrad Med J 75:169–170.
249. Monroy-Lozano BE, Hurtado-Lopez LM, Zaldivar-Ramirez FR, Basurto-Kuba E 2001 Clinical behavior of thyroid papillary cancer in pregnancy: optimal time for its treatment. Ginecol Obstet Mex 69:359–362.
250. Yasmeen S, Cress R, Romano PS, Xing G, Berger-Chen S, Danielsen B, Smith LH 2005 Thyroid cancer in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 91:15–20.
251. Nam KH, Yoon JH, Chang HS, Park CS 2005 Optimal timing of surgery in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma detected during pregnancy. J Surg Oncol 91:199–203.
252. Vannucchi G, Perrino M, Rossi S, Colombo C, Vicentini L, Dazzi D, Beck-Peccoz P, Fugazzola L 2010 Clinical and molecular features of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol 162:145–151.
253. Rosen IB, Walfish PG 1986 Pregnancy as a predisposing factor in thyroid neoplasia. Arch Surg 121:1287–1290.
254. Doherty CM, Shindo ML, Rice DH, Montero M, Mestman JH 1995 Management of thyroid nodules during pregnancy. Laryngoscope 105:251–255.
255. Chong KM, Tsai YL, Chuang J, Hwang JL, Chen KT 2007 Thyroid cancer in pregnancy: a report of 3 cases. J Reprod Med 52:416–418.
256. Kuy S, Roman SA, Desai R, Sosa JA 2009 Outcomes following thyroid and parathyroid surgery in pregnant women. Arch Surg 144:399–406; discussion 406.
257. Mestman JH, Goodwin TM, Montoro MM 1995 Thyroid disorders of pregnancy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 24:41–71.
258. American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer; Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Sherman SI, Steward DL, Tuttle RM 2009 Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 19:1167–1214.
259. Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Dralle H, Elisei R, Smit JW, Wiersinga W; European Thyroid Cancer Taskforce 2006 European consensus for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Eur J Endocrinol 154:787–803.
260. Sawka AM, Lakra DC, Lea J, Alshehri B, Tsang RW, Brierley JD, Straus S, Thabane L, Gafni A, Ezzat S, George SR, Goldstein DP 2008 A systematic review examining the effects of therapeutic radioactive iodine on ovarian function and future pregnancy in female thyroid cancer survivors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 69:479–490.
261. Garsi JP, Schlumberger M, Rubino C, Ricard M, Labbe M, Ceccarelli C, Schvartz C, Henri-Amar M, Bardet S, de Vathaire F 2008 Therapeutic administration of 131I for differentiated thyroid cancer: radiation dose to ovaries and outcome of pregnancies. J Nucl Med 49:845–852.
263. Hill CS Jr, Clark RL, Wolf M 1966 The effect of subsequent pregnancy on patients with thyroid carcinoma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 122:1219–1222.
264. Leboeuf R, Emerick LE, Martorella AJ, Tuttle RM 2007 Impact of pregnancy on serum thyroglobulin and detection of recurrent disease shortly after delivery in thyroid cancer survivors. Thyroid 17:543–547.
265. Rosario PW, Barroso AL, Purisch S 2007 The effect of subsequent pregnancy on patients with thyroid carcinoma apparently free of the disease. Thyroid 17:1175–1176.
266. Hirsch D, Levy S, Tsvetov G, Weinstein R, Lifshitz A, Singer J, Shraga-Slutzky I, Grozinski-Glasberg S, Shimon I, Benbassat C 2010 Impact of pregnancy on outcome and prognosis of survivors of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid 20:1179–1185.
267. Amino N, Mori H, Iwatani Y, Tanizawa O, Kawashima M, Tsuge I, Ibaragi K, Kumahara Y, Miyai K 1982 High prevalence of transient post-partum thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 306:849–852.
268. Stagnaro-Green A 2002 Clinical review 152: postpartum thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4042–4047.
269. Stagnaro-Green A, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, Tinelli A, Mangieri T, Negro R 2011 High rate of persistent hypothyroidism in a large-scale prospective study of postpartum thyroiditis in southern Italy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:652–657.
270. Muller AF, Drexhage HA, Berghout A 2001 Postpartum thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroiditis in women of childbearing age: recent insights and consequences for antenatal and postnatal care. Endocr Rev 22:605–630.
271. Kuijpens JL, De Hann-Meulman M, Vader HL, Pop VJ, Wiersinga WM, Drexhage HA 1998 Cell-mediated immunity and postpartum thyroid dysfunction: a possibility for the prediction of disease?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:1959–1966.
272. Stagnaro-Green A, Roman SH, Cobin RH, el-Harazy E, Wallenstein S, Davies TF 1992A prospective study of lymphocyte-initiated immunosuppression in normal pregnancy: evidence of a T-cell etiology for postpartum thyroid dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74:645–653.
273. Smallridge RC 2000 Postpartum thyroid disease: a model of immunologic dysfunction. Clin Appl Immunol Rev 1:89–103.
274. Adams H, Jones MC, Othman S, Lazarus JH, Parkes AB, Hall R, Phillips DI, Richards CJ 1992 The sonographic appearances in postpartum thyroiditis. Clin Radiol 45:311–315.
275. Nicholson WK, Robinson KA, Smallridge RC, Ladenson PW, Powe NR 2006 Prevalence of postpartum thyroid dysfunction: a quantitative review. Thyroid 16:573–582.
276. Gerstein HC 1993 Incidence of postpartum thyroid dysfunction in patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 118:419–423.
277. Alvarez-Marfany M, Roman SH, Drexler AJ, Robertson C, Stagnaro-Green A 1994 Long-term prospective study of postpartum thyroid dysfunction in women with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:10–16.
278. Elefsiniotis IS, Vezali E, Pantazis KD, Saroglou G 2008 Post-partum thyroiditis in women with chronic viral hepatitis. J Clin Virol 41:318–319.
279. Stagnaro-Green A, Akhter E, Yim C, Davies TF, Magder L, Petri M 2011 Thyroid disease in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus: increased preterm delivery. Lupus 20:690.
280. Tagami T, Hagiwara H, Kimura T, Usui T, Shimatsu A, Naruse M 2007 The incidence of gestational hyperthyroidism and postpartum thyroiditis in treated patients with Graves’ disease. Thyroid 17:767–772.
281. Lazarus JH, Ammari F, Oretti R, Parkes AB, Richards CJ, Harris B 1997 Clinical aspects of recurrent postpartum thyroiditis. Br J Gen Pract 47:305–308.
282. Caixas A, Albareda M, Garcia-Patterson A, Rodriguez-Espinosa J, de Leiva A, Corcoy R 1999 Postpartum thyroiditis in women with hypothyroidism antedating pregnancy? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:4000–4005.
283. Marqusee E, Hill JA, Mandel SJ 1997 Thyroiditis after pregnancy loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2455–2457.
284. Walfish PG, Meyerson J, Provias JP, Vargas MT, Papsin FR 1992 Prevalence and characteristics of post-partum thyroid dysfunction: results of a survey from Toronto, Canada. J Endocrinol Invest 15:265–272.
285. Hayslip CC, Fein HG, O’Donnell VM, Friedman DS, Klein TA, Smallridge RC 1988 The value of serum antimicrosomal antibody testing in screening for symptomatic postpartum thyroid dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159:203–209.
287. Pop VJ, de Rooy HA, Vader HL, van der Heide D, van Son M, Komproe IH, Essed GG, de Geus CA 1991 Postpartum thyroid dysfunction and depression in an unselected population. N Engl J Med 324:1815–1816.
288. Lucas A, Pizarro E, Granada ML, Salinas I, Sanmarti A 2001 Postpartum thyroid dysfunction and postpartum depression: are they two linked disorders? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 55:809–814.
289. Harris B, Othman S, Davies JA, Weppner GJ, Richards CJ, Newcombe RG, Lazarus JH, Parkes AB, Hall R, Phillips DI 1992 Association between postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies and depression. BMJ 305: 152–156.
290. Kuijpens JL, Vader HL, Drexhage HA, Wiersinga WM, van Son MJ, Pop VJ 2001 Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during gestation are a marker for subsequent depression postpartum. Eur J Endocrinol 145:579–584.
291. Pop VJ, de Rooy HA, Vader HL, van der Heide D, van Son MM, Komproe IH 1993 Microsomal antibodies during gestation in relation to postpartum thyroid dysfunction and depression. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 129:26–30.
292. Harris B, Oretti R, Lazarus J, Parkes A, John R, Richards C, Newcombe R, Hall R 2002 Randomised trial of thyroxine to prevent postnatal depression in thyroid-antibody-positive women. Br J Psychiatry 180:327–330.
293. Tachi J, Amino N, Tamaki H, Aozasa M, Iwatani Y, Miyai K 1988 Long term follow-up and HLA association in patients with postpartum hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66:480–484.
294. Fung HY, Kologlu M, Collison K, John R, Richards CJ, Hall R, McGregor AM 1988 Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in Mid Glamorgan. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 296:241–244.
295. Vargas MT, Briones-Urbina R, Gladman D, Papsin FR, Walfish PG 1988 Antithyroid microsomal autoantibodies and HLA-DR5 are associated with postpartum thyroid dysfunction: evidence supporting an autoimmune pathogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:327–333.
296. Rasmussen NG, Hornnes PJ, Hoier-Madsen M, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hegedus L 1990 Thyroid size and function in healthy pregnant women with thyroid autoantibodies. Relation to development of postpartum thyroiditis. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 123:395–401.
297. Azizi F 2005 The occurrence of permanent thyroid failure in patients with subclinical postpartum thyroiditis. Eur J Endocrinol 153:367–371.
298. Nohr SB, Jorgensen A, Pedersen KM, Laurberg P 2000 Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:3191–3198.
299. Kampe O, Jansson R, Karlsson FA 1990 Effects of L-thyroxine and iodide on the development of autoimmune postpartum thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:1014–1018.
300. Klein RZ, Haddow JE, Faix JD, Brown RS, Hermos RJ, Pulkkinen A, Mitchell ML 1991 Prevalence of thyroid deficiency in pregnant women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 35: 41–46.
301. Pop VJ, Kuijpens JL, van Baar AL, Verkerk G, van Son MM, de Vijlder JJ, Vulsma T, Wiersinga WM, Drexhage HA, Vader HL 1999 Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 50:149–155.
302. Lazarus J 2010 Outcome of the CATS study. Oral presentation at the International Thyroid Congress (ITC), Paris, France, September 11–16. Symposium no. 18.
303. Dosiou C, Sanders GD, Araki SS, Crapo LM 2008 Screening pregnant women for autoimmune thyroid disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 158:841–851.
304. Thung SF, Funai EF, Grobman WA 2009 The cost-effectiveness of universal screening in pregnancy for subclinical hypothyroidism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:267. e1–267.e7.
305. Vaidya B, Anthony S, Bilous M, Shields B, Drury J, Hutchison S, Bilous R 2007 Detection of thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy: universal screening or targeted high-risk case finding? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:203–207.
306. Horacek J, Spitalnikova S, Dlabalova B, Malirova E, Vizda J, Svilias I, Cepkova J, Mc Grath C, Maly J 2010 Universal screening detects two-times more thyroid disorders in early pregnancy than targeted high-risk case finding. Eur J Endocrinol 163:645–650.
307. De Carlucci D Jr, Tavares MR, Obara MT, Martins LA, Hojaij FC, Cernea CR 2008 Thyroid function after unilateral total lobectomy: risk factors for postoperative hypothyroidism. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134: 1076–1079.
308. Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, Ridgway EC 2000 The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Intern Med 160:526–534.
309. Canaris GJ, Steiner JF, Ridgway EC 1997 Do traditional symptoms of hypothyroidism correlate with biochemical disease? J Gen Intern Med 12:544–550.
310. Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM 1988 De novo clinical hypothyroidism in pregnancies complicated by type I diabetes, subclinical hypothyroidism, and proteinuria: a new syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159:442–446.
311. Ladenson PW 2005 Diagnosis of hypothyroidism. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds) Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 9th edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 857–863.
312. Poppe K, Glinoer D, Van Steirteghem A, Tournaye H, Devroey P, Schiettecatte J, Velkeniers B 2002 Thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in infertile women. Thyroid 12:997–1001.
313. Mercado G, Adelstein DJ, Saxton JP, Secic M, Larto MA, Lavertu P 2001 Hypothyroidism: a frequent event after radiotherapy and after radiotherapy with chemotherapy for patients with head and neck carcinoma. Cancer 92: 2892–2897.
314. Rotondi M, Leporati P, La Manna A, Pirali B, Mondello T, Fonte R, Magri F, Chiovato L 2009 Raised serum TSH levels in patients with morbid obesity: is it enough to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism? Eur J Endocrinol 160:403–408.
315. Michalaki MA, Vagenakis AG, Leonardou AS, Argentou MN, Habeos IG, Makri MG, Psyrogiannis AI, Kalfarentzos FE, Kyriazopoulou VE 2006 Thyroid function in humans with morbid obesity. Thyroid 16:73–78.
316. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE 2002 Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:489–499.
317. Eskes SA, Wiersinga WM 2009 Amiodarone and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 23:735–751.
319. Vagenakis AG, Braverman LE 1975 Adverse effects of iodides on thyroid function. Med Clin North Am 59:1075–1088.