ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS
Papillary thyroid cancer: the most common type of thyroid cancer. There are 4 variants of papillary thyroid cancer: classic, follicular, tall-cell and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).
Follicular thyroid cancer: the second most common type of thyroid cancer.
Follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer: one of the subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma, which has been classified to three different forms: non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, invasive encapsulated and infiltrative FVPTC
Cancer metastasis: spread of the cancer from the initial organ where it developed to other organs, such as the lungs and bone.
Radioactive iodine (RAI): this plays a valuable role in diagnosing and treating thyroid problems since it is taken up only by the thyroid gland. I-131 is the destructive form used to destroy thyroid tissue in the treatment of thyroid cancer and with an overactive thyroid. I-123 is the non-destructive form that does not damage the thyroid and is used in scans to take pictures of the thyroid (Thyroid Scan) or to take pictures of the whole body to look for thyroid cancer (Whole Body Scan).
Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) scans: a nuclear medicine imaging test that uses a small amount of radiolabeled glucose to identify cancer. Since cancer cells are more active than normal cells, the cancer cells take up more of the radiolabeled glucose and show up on the PET scan. PET scans are frequently combined with CT scans to accurately identify where the cancer is located.
Tyrosine kinases: proteins that are overactive in many of the pathways that cause cells to be cancerous.
Multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs): anticancer drugs that have been shown to be effective in thyroid cancer treatment. They work by inhibiting tyrosine kinases that cause cells to be cancerous. A drawback to these drugs are frequent side effects that limit their use.